Captain Megan Rapinoe broke the deadlock with a 61st-minute VAR-awarded penalty before Rose Lavelle rounded off the victory eight minutes later.
It was the US’s fourth title after World Cup victories in 1991, 1999 and 2015.
The Netherlands battled throughout and goalkeeper Sari van Veenendaal kept out the US for an hour with a series of superb saves in front of 57,900 fans at Lyon’s Groupama Stadium.
But Van Veenendaal stood motionless when winger Rapinoe converted the spot kick to join team mate Alex Morgan and England’s Ellen White on six goals at the tournament and Lavelle’s attempt also eluded the Dutch keeper soon after.
Speaking after the final whistle, USA coach Jill Ellis told Fox Sports: “This is just an amazing group of players, but an even better group of people, just fantastic resilience, just chemistry.
“They’ve put their hearts and souls into this journey and I can’t thank them enough. It’s been fantastic.”
Asked what she had said to her players in the huddle as the celebrations began, Portsmouth-born Ellis added: “I could barely speak, but I just said to them they were unbelievable, congratulations, they made history, enjoy it. It’s unbelievable. I’ve got no words, I’m sorry.”
Rapinoe was at a loss for words when asked to describe her feelings.
She said: “I don’t think I can. It’s unbelievable. Just to know all of the people in our group that put in so much work, obviously the players – we have all our friends and family here – it’s surreal.
“I don’t know how to feel right now. It’s ridiculous.
“We’re crazy, that’s what makes us special. We just have no quit in us, we’re so tight and we’ll do anything to win.”