Violet Mosse-Brown died at the Fairfield Medical Centre in Jamaica on Friday after a brief illness.
Ms Mosse-Brown became the oldest living person on April 15, 2017, following the death of Emma Morano.
Following her death, Nabi Tajima, of Japan, is now the world’s oldest verified living person. Tajima is 117.
Her eldest child, Harold Fairweather, who was believed to be the world’s oldest living child with a parent alive, died a few months ago aged 97.
A family member said: “I came to look for her this afternoon and was told that she passed.”
Ms Mosse-Brown is also the last living subject of Queen Victoria, having been born one year before the monarch died when Jamaica was still part of the British Empire.
She had recently been recognised by the Guinness Book of Records and at the time was still living in the same house that she was born in.
In an interview, the supercentenarian said she liked to eat Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes, and fruit especially oranges and mangoes.
Since becoming the world’s oldest person less than a year ago, Brown has brought much visibility to her local area.
The worlds oldest person had enjoyed visits from her county’s figureheads.
They included Jamaican Governor General Sir Patrick Allen, Prime Minister Andrew Holness, Opposition leader Dr Peter Phillips, and president of Jamaica Baptist Union, Dr Devon Dick.
The longest confirmed human lifespan in history is that of Jeanne Calment who died on August 4, 1997 at the age of 122 years and 164 days.